By Ronald C. Rosbottom. It established both the German Empire and the French Third Republic. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Prussian troops marching past the Arc de Triomphe in Paris during the Franco-Prussian War, undated illustration. The vast German and French armies that then confronted each other were each grouped into right and left wings. Economic exploitation of the occupied zone increased throughout the war. His further retreat was checked by the German right wing in the blundering Battles of Mars-la-Tour and Gravelotte on August 16 and 18, respectively, and he then took refuge behind the defenses of Metz indefinitely. This InfoFile lists nearly 1,500 occupations and occupational terms in German, with English translations. Ten percent of eastern France remained in the possession of the German Army for the war's duration. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. The occupation of French territory on the other hand was a result of the Battle of the Marne, i… Neither the occupation of Belgium nor the occupation of French territory was planned long beforehand. The northern part along with all coastlines went the Nazis while the south went to a government run by Marshal Pétain, called Vichy France. Prussian victories over Denmark (1864) and Austria (1866) indicated a serious shift in the European balance of power. The French emperor, Napoleon III, declared war on Prussia on July 19, 1870, because his military advisers told him that the French army could defeat Prussia and that such a victory would restore his declining popularity in France. French, British, Italian and American troops launch the big offensive which obliged German soldiers to give up the invasion of Flanders. About 104,000 officers and men were taken prisoner, including both Napoleon and Mac-Mahon. This was essential to him as Germany's stock of raw materials — and of the foreign currencies to buy them — was critically low. The immediate cause of the Franco-German War, however, was the candidacy of Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (who was related to the Prussian royal house) for the Spanish throne, which had been left vacant when Queen Isabella II had been deposed in 1868. After German forces invaded Poland, France and Great Britain declared war on Germany.In 1940 Hitler had his sights set on its southwestern neighbour. This superior organization and mobility enabled the chief of the general staff, Gen. Helmuth von Moltke, to exploit German superiority in numbers in most of the war’s battles. France was to be divided into occupied and unoccupied parts. On November 10, 1942, German troops occupy Vichy France, which had previously been free of an Axis military presence. Count Helmuth von Moltke directed German troops through France, much like his nephew Moltke who did the same during World War I. German troops only left France in September 1873 when the full indemnity had been paid. The Prussian chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, and Spain’s de facto leader, Juan Prim, persuaded the reluctant Leopold to accept the Spanish throne in June 1870. The French were convinced that the reorganization of their army in 1866 had made it superior to the German armies. cathedrale,france,germany,1870,1914,1940,invasion,occupation, end notes. Though the war was perhaps not planned by Bismarck, it was certainly not unwelcome to him.  64 percent of France's pig-iron production, 24 percent of its steel manufacturing and 40 percent of the total coal mining capacity was located in the zone, dealing a major setback to French industry. How long did the Germans occupy France? This settlement was finally negotiated by Adolphe Thiers and Favre and was signed February 26 and ratified March 1. Though their advance was stopped at the First Battle of the Marnein September 1914, the Germans gained control of a portion of French territory which remained under German occupation behin… This time the prize was the province of Alsace and part of Lorraine and agreement with the southern German states to form a single German empire under the Prussian ruler. That same day, about 40 miles (65 km) to the northeast, the commander of the French left wing, Marshal Achille Bazaine, was dislodged from near Saarbrücken and fell back westward to the fortress of Metz. French cuirassiers charging Prussian infantrymen at the Battle of Wörth (also called the Battle of Reichshoffen), August 6, 1870. Much of the 1928 novel Schlump by Hans Herbert Grimm is set in German-occupied France where the protagonist works in the occupation administration. Beginning in August 1914 with the invasion of neutral Belgium , the country was almost completely overrun by German troops before the winter of the same year as the Allied forces withdrew westwards. Trapped against the Belgian frontier, the French lost 17,000 men and were compelled to surrender on September 2. Little, Brown. With Napoleon III no longer in power to protect them, the Papal States were annexed by Italy (September 20, 1870), thereby completing that nation’s unification. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). How did the German occupation forces treat WW1 Allied Memorials/Gravestones in France during WW2? An equally important asset was the Prussian army’s general staff, which planned the rapid, orderly movement of large numbers of troops to the battle zones. This is a romantic speculation. The years from 1871 to 1914 were marked by an extremely unstable peace, since France’s determination to recover Alsace-Lorraine and Germany’s mounting imperialist ambitions kept the two nations constantly poised for conflict. He was now dependent on supplies from his new ally the Soviet Union, a situation he was uncomfortable wi… A detailed case study of the German occupation of France during World War II demonstrates these claims. Loading ... World War I: When northern France was on German time - Duration: 16:05. The German occupation The attorney general of Guernsey, Ambrose Sherwill, actually referred to it as a ‘model occupation’, which very much captured the essence of what the German … Léon Gambetta, the leading figure in the provisional government, organized new French armies in the countryside after escaping from besieged Paris in a balloon. The non-occupied region of France, known as Vichy France, was set up by the Germans and governed … The German occupation of France lasted 4 years. The occupied zone represented about 3.7 percent of French landmass and included some of the most industrialized parts of the country. Franco-German War (July 19, 1870–May 10, 1871), war in which a coalition of German states led by Prussia defeated France. Italy, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Finland, Croatia, and Vichy France were all either allied to Germany or subject to heavy German influence. The efficient German mobilization contrasted with confusion and delay on the French side. Find places of remembrance to visit which are related to this theme. The war marked the end of French hegemony in continental Europe and resulted in the creation of a unified Germany. Despite the fact that the French Army was heavily manning the country’s border with its enemy, Germany successfully invaded the country and occupied it within only 6 weeks. The History Place - World War I Timeline - 1915 - Occupied France. These engaged but could not defeat the German forces.  A number of important towns and cities were situated within it too, notably Lille, Douai, Cambrai, Valenciennes, Maubeuge and Avesnes. Both were more or less a consequence of the failed execution of the so-called Schlieffenplan. Since July 1940, upon being invaded and The German campaign is being carried out for the most part through the medium of … France was split in two. The occupying armies consisted of American, Belgian, British and French forces. The Commune was suppressed after two months, and the harsh provisions of the Treaty of Frankfurt were then implemented: Germany annexed Alsace and half of Lorraine, with Metz. Germany had invaded Belgium thus violating its neutral status, because it wanted to avoid the French fortresses between Belfort and Verdun. 26 September : Offensive in Lorraine by Foch. Paris was under German occupation from June 14, 1940 to August 25, 1944. The Franco-German War had far-reaching consequences. On June 14, 1940, Parisians awaken to the sound of a German-accented voice announcing via loudspeakers that a curfew was being imposed for 8 p.m. that evening I am aware of the history and politics of The Tannenberg Memorial and am curious as to whether there was any jingoism or otherwise on the behalf of Germans during the occupation with regards to the Allied memorials (Thiepval, Vimy Ridge, Menin Gate etc). This move greatly alarmed France, who felt threatened by a possible combination of Prussia and Spain directed against it. Resulted in the creation of a unified Germany are agreeing to news offers. 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